Glossary

  • Antibody

    Antibodies are proteins formed by the immune system, which play an important role in the defense against foreign substances in the body.

  • AR-V7

    AR-V7- Abbreviation for androgen receptor splice variant 7

    AR-V7 is a predictive biomarker for prostate cancer patients that does not make sense to treat certain targeted therapies (such as enzalutamide).

  • Biomarkers

    In medicine and biology, biomarkers are measurable parameters of biological processes. These have a diagnostic or prognostic value, which can be used as an indicator of disease. They indicate, among other things, the presence of a disease, a physiological change, the response to a treatment or a psychological condition.

  • Biopsie

    A biopsy is an intervention to take small tissue samples from a living organism

  • CD45

    Blood cell marker

  • CE- certification

    The CE marking defines the conformity of a product with the applicable requirements that the European Community places on the manufacturer. Products bearing a CE mark can be distributed and used in all participating countries of the European Economic Area (EEA).

  • CFDA- approval

    The “China Food and Drug Administration” (CFDA), as the managing authority, is responsible for the regulation and control of all medical devices available in China. Only medical devices that have CFDA certification can be marketed and used in China.

  • CK

    CK- Abbreviation for cytokeratin, English name for cytokeratins (also called keratins)

  • Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy is a form of drug treatment for diseases. Usually this term refers to the cytostatic treatment of cancer. It uses drugs that prevent cancer cells from continuing to grow uncontrollably.

  • CTC

    Circulating Tumor Cells, English name for circulating tumor cells

  • ctDNA

    ctDNA – Abbreviation for circulating tumor DNA, English name for circulating tumor DNA (refers to the proportion of circulating DNA, which originates from tumor cells)

  • DNA

     DNA – Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, English name for deoxyribonucleic acid

    DNA is a biomolecule present in all living things and in some viruses, which is the carrier of genetic information.

  • Downstream analyzes

    Downstream, English name for “downstream”

    Downstream Analyzes are downstream analyzes used for the molecular or cellular characterization of isolated circulating tumor cells.

  • EpCAM

    EpCAM – Abbreviation for epithelial cell adhesion molecule, English name for epithelial cell adhesion molecule

    EpCAM is expressed on the surface of various epithelial cells and mediates inter alia cell-cell binding.

  • Epithelial cells

    Cells that line the surfaces and cavities of the body.

  • EWR

    European Economic Area

  • Gene

    A gene is a portion of the DNA that contains the information for producing a biologically active gene product.

  • Hoechst33342

    Hoechst33342 is a fluorescent dye used to stain DNA and thus to identify cell nuclei.

  • Immunofluorescence

    Immunofluorescence is a technique that uses antibodies labeled with fluorescent dyes to detect proteins.

  • In vitro – Methods

    In vitro – methods are methods that are used outside the living body in an artificial environment, e.g. in a test tube and usually in a laboratory.

  • In vivo

    Processes and investigations that take place in living organisms

  • In vivo – Application

    Use of a method that is performed in the body of patients or healthy subjects.

  • Clinical study

    Clinical trials are a form of data collection in evidence-based medicine and clinical research. Clinical trials will evaluate the effectiveness and safety of drugs, certain forms of treatment, medical interventions or medical devices. They are carried out to answer scientific questions and improve medical treatment. They are the prerequisite for regulatory approval of medicinal products and medical devices.

  • Carcinoma

    As a carcinoma cancer is called, which emanates from cells of epithelial origin.

  • KRAS

    KRAS Protein that plays a crucial role in the growth of malignant tumors.

  • Cancer

    Cancer is a multitude of different diseases in which body cells multiply uncontrollably, form metastases and invade (ingrowing) into healthy tissue.

  • Leukocytes

    Leukocytes (or white blood cells) are cells found mainly in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs. They belong to the immune system and have the specific function of defending against pathogens and alien structures.

  • Liquid Biopsie

    Liquid biopsy – English name for liquid biopsy.

    Mit diesem Fachbegriff werden derzeit diagnostische Verfahren bezeichnet, bei denen aus einer Körperflüssigkeit, wie Blut oder Urin, krankheitsspezifische Informationen gewonnen werden. Meistens werden CTCs oder ctDNA aus einer Blutprobe gewonnen und analysiert. Im Vergleich zu einer normalen Gewebebiopsie ist diese nur minimal-invasiv und kann daher beliebig oft wiederholt werden. Das Verfahren der Liquid Biopsy wird in der Onkologie zu unterschiedlichen Zwecken eingesetzt, z. B. zur Identifizierung therapeutischer Zielstrukturen und Resistenzmechanismen sowie zur Krankheitsüberwachung.

  • Metastases

    Daughter tumor of a tumor, which is located outside the originally infected tissue or body part.

  • Minimal – invasive

    Minimal invasive describes a medical procedure in which an instrument is injected into the skin or into the body, but no major injuries can occur.

  • Molecular analysis

    Analysis of molecular structures, such as DNA, RNA and proteins.

  • Mutation

    A mutation is a change in the genetic material.

  • Mutationsanalysis

    A mutational analysis examines the presence of specific mutations.

  • mRNA

    mRNA – Abbreviation for messenger RNA, gene products that is used directly for the synthesis of proteins.

  • NSCLC

    NSCLC  – Abbreviation for Non Small Cell Lung Cancer, English name for non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    NSCLC is the most common form of lung cancer, which when examined microscopically consists of larger cells than other lung cancers.

  • Oncology

    Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the development, development and treatment of tumors.

  • PCR

    PCR – Abbreviation for polymerase chain reaction, English name for polymerase chain reaction. A polymerase chain reaction is a method of amplifying DNA

  • Precision medicine

    In precision medicine, patients are classified into subgroups and receive within the available, the most appropriate therapy.

  • Progression-free survival

    In a clinical study, Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is an important parameter. It refers to the time span from the start of a study to the beginning of the progression of the disease (the progression of the disease) or the date of death of the patient.

  • Proteins

    Proteins, also called proteins, are biological macromolecules that control cell and body functions, act as ‘tools’ of the metabolism in the form of enzymes and are used as structural elements. They are generated in the cell from the mRNA molecules.

  • Recurrence (tumor recurrence)

    Recurrence of tumors after complete destruction or after a partial remission.

  • Remission

    The temporary or permanent disappearance of a disease.

  • RNA

    RNA – Abbreviation for ribonucleic acid, English name for ribonucleic acids

    RNA assumes important tasks in the transmission of genetic information. An essential function of RNA is the conversion of genetic information from the DNA or the genes into proteins.

  • SCLC

    SCLC  – Abbreviation for Small Cell Lung Cancer, English name for small cell lung carcinoma.

    SCLC is a form of lung cancer that, when viewed microscopically, consists of smaller cells than other lung cancers.

  • Sensitivity

    The sensitivity provides information about the quality of a screening procedure (also correct positive rate, sensitivity or hit rate). For example, in a medical diagnosis, sensitivity indicates the proportion of actual patients in whom the disease was diagnosed.

    Or more generally: Sensitivity indicates the proportion of correctly recognized objects of the total number of actually positive objects.

  • Sequencing

    Sequencing is a method for determining the nucleotide sequence of a DNA segment.

  • Somatic

    Somatic means concerning the body.

  • Specificity

    The specificity provides information about the quality of a screening procedure. Specificity is a measure of the proportion of false-positive findings. The higher the specificity, the lower the probability that a test will indicate a false positive result.

  • Tumor

    A benign or malignant (malignant) neoplasm of body tissue that results from a dysregulation of cell growth.

  • Tumor markers

    An endogenous substance that indicates cancer. It can be formed either by the tumor cell itself or by healthy body cells in response to the presence of a tumor.

  • WGA

    WGA – Abbreviation for Whole genome amplification, English name for a method for the duplication of the entire genome

  • Cell

    A cell is the smallest unit of the living organism, therefore, the cell is able to fulfill the basic functions of the organism, ie metabolism, growth, movement, reproduction and heredity.

  • Targeted therapies

    Targeted therapies are a term used to summarize drugs that target specific biological features of the tumor that promote tumor cell growth. Often the English term “Targeted therapies” is used.

  • Circulating tumor cells

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that have detached themselves from the primary tumor or metastasis and can spread systematically through the blood and lymphatic system in the body of cancer patients.

  • Cytokeratine

    Cytokeratins, also called keratins, are proteins involved in intercellular filament formation. Cytokeratins are used for mechanical stabilization, but also fulfill various other tasks in epithelial cells. Cytokeratins are used as markers to identify epithelial cells..